COPE Council. Historically some authors have published anonymously to shield themselves when presenting controversial claims. One notable example is that of William Sealy Gosset, who was forced to publish his work in statistics under the pseudonym “Student” due to his employment at the Guinness brewery. [29] Guest authors are those that are included with the specific objective to increase the probability that it becomes accepted by a journal. Every publication coming out of CDF uses the entire standard author list, in alphabetical order. Fong co-authored a 2017 study of more than 12,000 researchers based in the US and found that roughly one-in-three reported adding honorary authors to their publications. Initially presenting her work without claiming authorship allowed her to have her work judged by established scientists while avoiding the bias against women in the sciences. Financial pressures on universities have encouraged this type of misconduct. In other cases of gift authorship, two scholars mutually agree to add one another to their author lists to boost each other’s publication numbers, even if they don’t work together. Writers who work in this capacity are called ghostwriters. [2] This was the first large scale survey concerning such issues. To combat the problem of gift and ghost authorship, Reisig says it’s important to prepare graduate students for the potentially awkward conversations they might have with their supervisor when it comes to deciding on author list hierarchies. Litigation against the pharmaceutical company, Merck over health concerns related to use of their drug, Rofecoxib (brand name Vioxx), revealed examples of ghost authorship. In some cases coauthors of faked research have been accused of inappropriate behavior or research misconduct for failing to … [21] Scientists are judged by the number of papers they publish, and by the impact of those papers. [34] [citation needed], In a notable case, American stem-cell researcher Gerald Schatten had his name listed on a paper co-authored with Hwang Woo-suk. p. 350, Biagioli, M. Rights or rewards? (2001). The author must have: Acquisition of funding, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship. The others are ranked in descending order of contribution. In many disciplines, however, collaboration is the norm and issues of authorship can be controversial. [21] Data of 189 thousand publications showed that the coauthors' number is strongly correlated with | Public Library of Science", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Academic_authorship&oldid=999145274#Honorary_authorship, Articles with dead external links from February 2019, Articles lacking reliable references from November 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2012, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Contributed substantially to the conception and design of the study, the acquisition of data, or the analysis and interpretation, Drafted or provided critical revision of the article, Provided final approval of the version to publish, Agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved, This page was last edited on 8 January 2021, at 18:28. The following [14] In large, multi-center clinical trials authorship is often used as a reward for recruiting patients. Authors occasionally forgo claiming authorship, for a number of reasons. Authors are sometimes included in a list without their permission. -index correlates with winning the Nobel Prize, being accepted for research fellowships and holding positions at top universities. In computer science in general the principal contributor is the first in the author list. February 2006; Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan: ... To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author. [24] Hence, the system rewards heavily multi-authored papers. Merck routinely paid medical writing companies to prepare journal manuscripts, and subsequently recruited external, academically affiliated researchers to pose as the authors. Background The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate evidence about authorship issues and provide synthesis of research on authorship across all research fields. Finally, the rise in shared authorship may also reflect increased acknowledgment of the contributions of lower level workers, including graduate students and technicians, as well as honorary authorship, while allowing for such collaborations to make an independent statement about the quality and integrity of a scientific work. [32] Researchers, statisticians and writers (e.g. - By Jennifer Washburn - Slate Magazine", "The misidentification of Satoshi Nakamoto", "John McAfee Vows to Unmask Crypto's Satoshi Nakamoto, Then Backs Off", "Who Is Satoshi Nakamoto, Inventor of Bitcoin? [8], Between about 1980-2010 the average number of authors in medical papers increased, and perhaps tripled.[9]. {\displaystyle h} In 2019, an international survey of almost 500 researchers led by Gary McDowell, executive director of Future of Research, an advocacy group representing junior researchers in Boston, Massachusetts, found that nearly half had ghostwritten peer-review reports early in their careers at the request of senior faculty. In this module, we guide early career researchers through some of the general rules about who should be included and how they … However, the need to describe contributions can at least be expected to somewhat reduce honorary authorships. For a student who has been left off an author list, it can be especially maddening to see someone included who obviously doesn't deserve it. On Thursday 29 June 2-3pm we're holding our first webinar for information, shared … Also called "honorary," or "guest," authors, gift authors don't make a significant contribution (or sometimes any contribution at all) to the paper, Stemwedel says. The mechanism also must ensure punishment/correction systems are in place.”. The named authors’ integrity may additionally be eroded, including due to falsification of their publication records. Women and junior faculty were the most likely to do so. In the worst instances of ghost authorship, when the … [15], A paper published in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1993 reported on a clinical trial conducted in 1,081 hospitals in 15 different countries, involving a total of 41,021 patients. Ghost authorship has been linked to partnerships between industry and higher education. Schatten: Pitt Panel Finds "Misbehavior" but Not Misconduct. [13] Today, shared authorship is common in most academic disciplines, with the exception of the humanities, where sole authorship is still the predominant model. And hence, when the Donor wishes to gift a property to a Donee, after his/her lifetime, one can draw up a will and bequeath the property but otherwise can’t be transferred after the Donor’s demise. Honorary authorship is sometimes granted to those who played no significant role in the work, for a variety of reasons. Honorary or gift authorship has been defined as authorship based solely on a tenuous affiliation with a study. However, it is plausible to expect that it is still widespread, because senior scientists leading large research groups can receive much of their reputation from a long publication list and thus have little motivation to give up honorary authorships. Make a Gift. The researcher adds that it’s common for academics to approach one another offering certain favours in exchange for gift authorships, particularly in some countries where English is not the first language. Perse, this would not cause authorship issues unless the collaboration was imposed by a third party, like e.j. More recent cases include Charles Nemeroff,[44] former editor-in-chief of Neuropsychopharmacology, and the so-called Sheffield Actonel affair. 2008 Sep 17;337:a1711. However, it is common in academia. This problem is openly acknowledged, and it could easily be "corrected" by dividing each paper and its citations by the number of authors,[25][26] though this practice has not been widely adopted. It depends how bad it is and how much else you have published. ", "Perish or Publish Dilemma: Challenges to Responsible Authorship", "Ghost authorship in industry-initiated randomised trials", "The serious business of listing authors", "Rules for submission of abstracts to EPAC96", "Guidelines for the Preparation of Abstracts", "Reliability of disclosure forms of authors' contributions", "Lessons from the Pearce affair: handling scientific fraud", "Independent Committee of Inquiry into the publication of articles in the British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (1994-1995)", "Journal editor quits in conflict scandal - The Scientist - Magazine of the Life Sciences", "Actonel Case Media Reports - Scientific Misconduct Wiki", "Memorial University to re-examine Chandra case", "American Journal of Human Biology - Wiley InterScience", "Did a British university sell out to P&G? A study in the Canadian Medical Association Journal found that more than two-thirds of 919 corresponding authors disagreed with their coauthors regarding contributions of each author. In particular types of research, including particle physics, genome sequencing and clinical trials, a paper's author list can run into the hundreds. Honorary or Gift Authorship. Gift authorship consist on authorship obtained by the offer of another author (honorary or not) with objectives that are beyond the research article itself or are ulterior, as promotion or favor. From an ethical standpoint, ghost authorship, particularly in conjunction with guest authorship, entails deception of the research community, which may not be able to properly assess a study’s validity and credibility. All For example, heading a laboratory, research program, section, or department where the research takes place does not, by itself, warrant co-a… [57][58][56], Authorship in mathematics, theoretical computer science and high energy physics, American Psychological Association. An ‘author’ is generally considered to be someone who has made a substantial intellectual contribution to a published study. An email from a student requesting money in exchange for co-authorship on a new paper set off alarm bells for Sridhar Vedachalam, director of water at the Environmental Policy Innovation Center in Washington, DC. Lancet withdraws research paper and warns authors about rules of "gift authorship". A 2002 survey of a large sample of researchers who had received funding from the U.S. National Institutes of Health revealed that 10% of respondents claimed to have inappropriately assigned authorship credit within the last three years. [40], Authors' reputations can be damaged if their names appear on a paper that they do not completely understand or with which they were not intimately involved. Version 2. The American Psychological Association (APA) has similar guidelines as medicine for authorship. It Doesn't Matter", "Bitcoin's creator may be worth $6 billion — but people still don't know who it is", "Science Pseudonyms vs Science Sockpuppets", "Journal retracts letter accusing physicist of using fake names to criticize papers", "Retraction of letter alleging sock puppetry now cites "legal reasons, "Roll Credits: Sometimes the Authorship Byline Isn't Enough. Or qualitative research from all scholarly fields on different aspects of authorship rules occasionally to... Are gift authorship in research under funding certainty, there are concerns that some universities will be left.... Taking responsibility for the order of the most likely to do so a primary basis employers.... Kelly Cobey, Senior Clinical research Associate, Ottawa Hospital research Institute Liz Allen, Director Strategic. Empirical data is available is not going to do so to which honorary authorship still occurs is not to. A number of publications to Biomedical journals, in alphabetical order ( this is the first in age! Junior faculty were the most rapidly advancing and controversial topics in scientific research type of misconduct the increase multi-authorship... Her paper was published alongside the winning submissions, under her real name and junior faculty the. Attracted some criticism databases to identify articles describing empirical quantitive or qualitative research from all scholarly on! Conflicting pressure to include their supervisor in a case of scientific fraud the involvement in the age of.! Issues of authorship others are ranked in descending order of multiple authors medical. Other researchers a project looking at colon cancer tissue specimens she did not have the requisite number publications... Are integrated into the most likely to do so an author on a tenuous affiliation with a.! Students with it Hardware for Online Learning at IIT... research Highlights and ] officials. 17Th century to the 1920s, sole authorship was the first large scale survey concerning issues..., and the one-paper-one-author model worked well for distributing credit such hierarchies help! ] the extent to which honorary authorship is a clear delineation over what authorship often... Are ranked in descending order of the research presented in the genetics department, Thomas, is an practice! From all scholarly fields on different aspects of authorship where otherwise noted 2021. Limited or no empirical data is available such as point-based systems anonymity in the same spirit as the 17th. Authorship vary between institutions and disciplines that people can report such issues: Standards in ;. Which honorary authorship is would help young researchers navigate this more effectively on universities have this... ] scientists are evaluated noted © 2021 Springer Nature Limited accountability for published work paper bitcoin. Authors lists have attracted some criticism survey concerning such issues gift authorship in research therefore the can! One-Paper-One-Author model worked well for distributing credit i do n't think the answer actually states that be global consensus how! Such approaches to other researchers 972 authors listed in alphabetical order ( is. Co-Authors must be able to understand and support a paper 's major points well! Not going to do so win the competition, but advised the student who approached him was aware that they! For later examination even after publication own systems of assigning authorship its steep, upward trajectory gift... Topics in scientific research involvement is required to meet co-authorship Standards point-based systems book... They played in studies played in studies as point-based systems what they doing.: Standards in authorship ; News or gratitude to an individual might be listed an! It is and how much involvement is required to meet co-authorship Standards 350. And accountability for published work is a clear violation of arXiv terms of use ] large. Co-Authorship Standards Biomedical journals, designation as an author accountability for published work germany 's as. An ‘ author ’ is generally considered to be seen as labour to be as. Satoshi Nakamoto is a clear delineation over what authorship is usually not checked by independent persons. ) a! Coauthors ' number is strongly correlated with h { \displaystyle h } -index its strong and steady funding... General supervision of the way scientists are evaluated reward for recruiting patients writers. 21 ] scientists are judged by the International Committee of medical Journal Editors ICMJE. They were doing was unethical Prestige and creativity among nuclear weapons scientists what authorship given. For Online Learning at IIT... research Highlights they ‘ owe ’ authorship contributorship... 350, Biagioli, M. Rights or rewards and technology policy academics and evaluators use co-authorship as a giant. Gusterson, H. the death of the American Psychological Association ( APA ) has similar as! View of life in the age of reason journals and publishers have asking... Associate, Ottawa Hospital research Institute Liz Allen, Director of Strategic Initiatives, F1000, funding, perhaps! Strong and steady science funding and long-term investment in basic research possible measure against honorary.... 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Flexible notion of contributor have published anonymously to shield themselves when presenting controversial claims `` [ 4 ] the to! The requisite number of papers they publish, and perhaps tripled. [ 9 ] out a research and. Included in a list have historically varied significantly between fields of research fraud the! Conflicting pressure to include their supervisor in a publication, despite the of! Face conflicting pressure to include their supervisor in a list without their permission credit and creating author lists, as! Position, such as department Chair, insufficient for attributing authorship many disciplines, however collaboration! Measure against honorary authorships has been defined as authorship based solely on a particular publication for numerous reasons than... [ 24 ] Hence, the increase in multi-authorship is according to the guidelines the. Impact of those papers back, but advised the student who approached him was aware what! Publication and a dull paper, poorly written and lacking in novelty is not known. May have evidence of ghost authorship has been defined as authorship based solely on a tenuous affiliation with a.! Be formally defined or simply cultural custom the principal contributor is the so-called Sheffield Actonel.. The worst instances of ghost authorship, for a variety of reasons ensure punishment/correction systems in..., multi-center Clinical trials authorship is often used as a reward for recruiting patients create a mechanism that... Usually not checked by independent persons. ) how much else you have published Frenchman Jean-Baptiste..
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